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AI Berisiko Melanggar Privasi Data Kesehatan

Kemajuan artificial intelligence (AI), seperti activity trackers, smartphones dan smartwatches memicu risiko pelanggaran privasi data kesehatan masyarakat. Begitu hasil riset sejumlah ahli dari University of California – Berkeley (UC Berkeley) di Amerika Serikat yang dirilis oleh jurnal JAMA Network Open 21 Desember 2018 (Liangyuan Na, Cong Yang, Chi-Cheng Lo, Fangyuan Zhao, Yoshimi Fukuoka, Anil Aswani, “Feasibility of Reidentifying Individuals in Large National Physical Activity Data Sets From Which Protected Health Information Has Been Removed With Use of Machine Learning,”  JAMA Network Open, 2018).

Dari hasil analisis data 2 tahun lebih dari 15.000 warga-negara Amerika Serikat (AS), riset itu menemukan setiap warga-negara dapat dikenali dengan mempelajari pola-pola data hariannya melalui activity trackers, smartwatches dan smartphones, dan menghubungkannya dengan data kependudukan. Riset itu menyimpulkan, standar-standar privasi menurut Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) tahun 1996 di AS, harus direvisi dan ditegakkan.

Risiko pelanggaran privasi bukan berkaitan dengan cepis-cepis atau perangkat AI. Tetapi, informasi data pribadi kesehatan masyarakat pada cepis-cepis AI dapat disalah-gunakan dan dijual-beli di pasar. “In principle, you could imagine Facebook gathering step data from the app on your smartphone, then buying health care data from another company and matching the two. Now they would have health care data that's matched to names, and they could either start selling advertising based on that or they could sell the data to others. I'm not saying we should abandon these devices. But we need to be very careful about how we are using this data. We need to protect the information. If we can do that, it's a net positive,” ungkap ahli sains komputer Anil Aswani, Ph.D (UC Berkeley, 3/1/2019).

AI memudahkan pengusaha, kreditor hipotek, perusahan kartu-kredit, dan banyak pihak lainnya, mendapat akses data-kesehatan masyarakat.  Kondisi ini memicu risiko penggunaan datanya secara ilegal atau tidak etis. “Ideally, what I'd like to see from this are new regulations or rules that protect health data,” ungkap Anil Aswani (Science Daily,  3/1/2019).

Oleh: Servas Pandur