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Lubang-Hitam Supermasif “Menelan” Gas Sekitarnya

Beberapa lubang hitam supermasif (supermassive black hole/SMBH) di pusat galaksi alam semesta, berkembang dengan menelan gas sekitarnya. Begitu hasil observasi dengan 3 teleskop angkasa--NICER (International Space Station) dan misi Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory (NASA)--dari Dr. Benny Trakhtenbrot dan Dr. Iair Arcavi pada Raymond & Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy di Tel Aviv University (TAU), Israel, yang memimpin tim ahli asal Amerika Serikat, Cile, Polandia dan Inggris (TAU, 14/1/2019).

Februari 2017, All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae menemukan peristiwa AT 2017bt (“star swallowing” atau “tidal disruption”) karena radiasi terpancar sekitar lubang hitam (black-hole) tumbuh 50 kali lebih cerah dari tahun 2004. Tim ahli itu menyimpulkan bahwa AT 2017bgt adalah cara baru ‘menyusui’ lubang-lubang hitam (Science Daily, 14/1/2019).

“The sudden brightening of AT 2017bgt was reminiscent of a tidal disruption event. But we quickly realized that this time there was something unusual. The first clue was an additional component of light, which had never been seen in tidal disruption events. We are not yet sure about the cause of this dramatic and sudden enhancement in the black holes' feeding rate. There are many known ways to speed up the growth of giant black holes, but they typically happen during much longer timescales,” papar Dr. Trakhtenbrot (TAU, 14/1/2019). 

Sedangkan menurut Dr. Arcavi, ketua tim riset data,”We followed this event for more than a year with telescopes on Earth and in space, and what we saw did not match anything we had seen before.” Hasil riset itu dirilis oleh Nature Astronomy edisi Januari 2019 (Benny Trakhtenbrot, Iair Arcavi, Claudio Ricci, Sandro Tacchella, Daniel Stern, Hagai Netzer, Peter G. Jonker, Assaf Horesh, Julián Esteban Mejía-Restrepo, Griffin Hosseinzadeh, Valentina Hallefors, D. Andrew Howell, Curtis McCully, Mislav Balokovi?, Marianne Heida, Nikita Kamraj, George Benjamin Lansbury, Lukasz Wyrzykowski, Mariusz Gromadzki, Aleksandra Hamanowicz, S. Bradley Cenko, David J. Sand, Eric Y. Hsiao, Mark M. Phillips, Tiara R. Diamond, Erin Kara, Keith C. Gendreau, Zaven Arzoumanian, Ron Remillard, “A new class of flares from accreting supermassive black holes,” Nature Astronomy, 2019). 


Oleh: Servas Pandur