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Dampak Tata-Guna Lahan Terhadap Pemanasan Global

Upaya dan program kebijakan sekitar 197 negara penanda-tangan Paris Agreement / Accord de Paris (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change /UNFCCC, Mei 1992) untuk mengurangi pemanasan global (global warming) melalui perubahan tata-guna (land-use) lahan, belum memadai. Begitu hasil riset ahli Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) dan University of Edinburgh yang dirilis oleh Nature Climate Change  awal 2019 (Calum Brown, Peter Alexander, Almut Arneth, Ian Holman and Mark Rounsevell, “Achievement of Paris climate goals unlikely due to time lags in the land system”, Nature Climate Change, 2019).

Target Paris Climate Agreement ialah iklim global berada pada level kurang dari dua derajat Celsius di atas masa-masa pra-industri. Menurut laporan khusus IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), bahwa suhu global telah naik satu derajat Celsius. “A quarter of anthropogenic greenhouse gases come from land use and the associated massive depletion of natural carbon sinks. Whether we achieve the climate goals of the Paris Agreement will depend heavily on our ability to establish fundamental, sustainable changes in the land use system,” ungkap Dr. Calum Brown (Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), 19/2/2019).

Lahan-lahan hutan makin ciut akibat deforestasi, pertanian dan agrikultur pastoral kian intensif memicu perubahan iklim, seperti halnya pembangkit listrik berbahan energi fosil dan emisi karbon pabrik-pabrik. Tim ahli itu meneliti program kebijakan (Nationally Determined Contributions/NDCs) antara lain pengurangan deforestasi, aforestasi lahan luas dan pengurangan emisi gas rumah-kaca agrikultur dari 197 negara penanda-tangan Paris Agreement dan pengaruhnya terhadap perubahan iklim dan pemanasan global (KIT, 19/2/2019).

“Whether we achieve the climate goals of the Paris Agreement will depend heavily on our ability to establish fundamental, sustainable changes in the land use system. Our study shows that if we want to meet the climate goals, we need to find quick, yet realistic solutions to sustainably change human land use. Forests store large amounts of carbon dioxide from the air and can thus reduce the greenhouse gases from agriculture,” ujar Dr. Calum Brown (KIT, 19/2/2019). 

Oleh: Servas Pandur