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Garam Untuk Reaksi Imun Terhadap Alergi

Garam tampaknya mempengaruhi reaksi imun alergi pada manusia karena dalam kultur-kultur sel, garam menghasilkan pembentukan sel-sel Th2. Begitu hasil riset Prof. Dr. Christina Zielinski dan koleganya di Technical University of Munich (TUM), Jerman. Hasil riset ini sangat berguna karena di negara-negara industri maju seperti negara-negara Eropa Barat, hampir satu di antara tiga orang mengidap alergi. Satu dari 10 anak mengidap ‘atopic demartitis’ (Technical University of Munich (TUM), 20/2/2019).

Tim ahli itu meneliti, apakah daerah kulit ‘atopic dermatitis’ menunjukkan peningkatan kadar sodium. Dengan analisis aktivasi neutron, tim ahli itu menguji sampel-sampel kulit pasien pada Research Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TUM, dan Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, di Jerman.

“Measuring sodium concentrations in the tissue is complicated. Dissolved salt inblood can be measured using standard clinical methods. But for the skin, we needed the help of colleagues in nuclear chemistry and physics,” papar Julia Matthias, author utama studi ilmiah itu (TUMN/Science Daily, 20/2/2019).

Sel-sel T (T-cells) berperan penting dalam pembentukan imun terhadap alergi dan vital pula bagi daya-tahan tubuh terhadap infeksi atau mengembangkan respons patologis dan menyerang alergen-alergen. Sedangkan sodium chloride penting bagi kesehatan manusia dan hewan. Prof. Dr. Christina Zielinski dari Institute of Virology, TUM, dan koleganya menemukan bahwa sodium chloride dapat induksi ke T-cells untuk menghasilkan protein-protein IL-4 dan IL-13. “Consequently, ionic signals do play a role in the generation and control of Th2 cells,” papar dermatolog Prof. Dr. Christina Zielinski (TUM, 20/2/2019).

Namun, tim ahli belum menemukan cara garam jumlah besar menuju kulit pasien. Studi lintas-disiplin diharapkan dapat menemukan jawabannya. “However, we have not yet been able to show how these large quantities of salt find their way to the skin. For that reason, we are also unsure of how a low-salt or high-salt diet might be related to the appearance and progression of atopic dermatitis or other allergic conditions,” ungkap Profesor Zielinski (TUM, 20/2/2019).

Hasil riset itu dirilis oleh jurnal Science Translational Medicine, edisi awal 2019 (Julia Matthias, Julia Maul, Rebecca Noster, Hanna Meinl, Ying-Yin Chao, Heiko Gerstenberg, Florian Jeschke, Gilles Gasparoni, Anna Welle, Jörn Walter, Karl Nordström, Klaus Eberhardt, Dennis Renisch, Sainitin Donakonda, Percy Knolle, Dominik Soll, Stephan Grabbe, Natalie Garzorz-Stark, Kilian Eyerich, Tilo Biedermann, Dirk Baumjohann, Christina E. Zielinski, “Sodium chloride is an ionic checkpoint for human TH2 cells and shapes the atopic skin microenvironment," Science Translational Medicine, 2019).

Oleh: Servas Pandur