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Risiko Residu Obat-Obatan Dalam Sumber Air Segar

Selama 1995-2015, konsentrasi-konsentrasi obat-obatan meningkat dalam sumber-sumber air segar (freshwater sources) di seluruh dunia. Residu-residu obat-obatan dalam air segar ini memicu risiko lingkungan skala global awal abad 21. Misalnya, pada tahun 2015, kadar antibiotik ciprofloxacin mencapai potensi memicu kerusakan lingkungan sekitar 10-20 kali kondisi tahun 1995 (Radboud University Nijmegen, 22/2/2019).

Begitu hasil riset ahli lingkungan Dr. Rik Oldenkamp, Arthur H. W. Beusen, dan Prof. Mark Antonius Jan Huijbregts, PhD pada Radboud University di Nijmegen (Belanda) tentang dampak lingkungan dari obat carbamazepine (obat anti-epilepsi) dan ciprofloxacin (antibiotik) yang dirilis oleh jurnal Environmental Research Letters edisi 22 Februari 2019 (Rik Oldenkamp, Arthur H W Beusen, Mark A J Huijbregts, “Aquatic risks from human pharmaceuticals—modelling temporal trends of carbamazepine and ciprofloxacin at the global scale”,  Environmental Research Letters, 2019).

“The concentrations of this antibiotic can be harmful for bacteria in the water, and these bacteria in turn play an important role in various nutrient cycles. Antibiotics can also have a negative impact on the effectiveness of bacteria colonies used in wastewater treatment,” papar Rik Oldenkamp, ketua tim penulis studi ilmiah ini (Radboud University Nijmegen, 22/2/2019).

Tim peneliti itu membuat model baru guna membuat perkiraan risiko lingkungan dari penggunaan obat-obatan pada masing-masing lingkungan wilayah skala global. “Getting an accurate picture of the environmental risks of pharmaceuticals around the world depends on the availability of data, which is limited. It's true that there are models, such as the ePiE model, which can give detailed predictions of pharmaceutical concentrations in the environment, but these are often only applicable to places where we already have a lot of information, such as rivers in Europe,” ungkap Rik Oldenkamp, ketua tim penulis studi ilmiah ini (Radboud University Nijmegen, 22/2/2019).

Selama ini lingkungan berfungsi sebagai sumber perlawanan terhadap berbagai patogen. Resistensi terhadap antibiotik akhir-akhir ini termasuk agenda badan kesehatan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (PBB), World Health Organization (WHO). Tim peneliti itu memperkirakan konsumsi obat manusia di zona-zona padat penduduk dan zona-zona kering-panas seperti Timur Tengah dengan model-model regresi berbasis konsumsi di zona-zona lain, demografi dan kondisi sosial-ekonomi yang berkaitan dengan sumber-sumber air dan akses penduduk ke tata-kelola sampah-air atau pembuangan (Science Daily, 22/2/2019).

“Our model predicts a relatively high environmental risk for ecoregions in densely populated and dry areas such as the Middle East, yet those are precisely the areas where there is little data on pharmaceutical use and concentrations in surface waters. Our model shows a particular need for new data in these types of areas. The model is really a starting point for creating an insight into the environmental risks posed by pharmaceuticals all over the world,” ungkap Rik Oldenkamp (Radboud University Nijmegen, 22/2/2019). 

Oleh: Servas Pandur