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Sejarah Evolusi Pohon Carob

Dengan mengurut tipe gen spesies (next-generation sequencing genotyping), Dr. Juan Viruel et al (2019) dari Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew—lembaga pendidikan dan pusat riset botani misalnya Millenium Seed bank, dengan jaringan ahli asal 95 negara—di Inggris, meneliti jejak sejarah evolusi pohon carob – spesies yang bernilai ekonomis dalam sejarah panjang masyarakat zona Mediteriania. Dr. Juan Viruel dan koleganya mengidentifikasi variasi molekular pada penanda DNA pohon carob dan mengkaji keragaman gennya. Hasilnya, teknologi-teknologi NGS (next-generation sequencing) dapat menyingkap sejarah evolusi pohon carob (Ceratonia siliqua) dengan resolusi lebih tinggi daripada metode tradisional  (Botanical Society of America, 6/3/2019).

Hasil riset Dr. Juan Viruel et al (2019) tentang struktur genetik populasi pohon carob dan keragaman gen-nya  dirilis oleh jurnal Applications in Plant Sciences edisi 2018 (Juan Viruel, Anne Haguenauer, Marianick Juin, Fatma Mirleau, Delphine Bouteiller, Magda Boudagher?Kharrat, Lahcen Ouahmane, Stefano La Malfa, Frédéric Médail, Hervé Sanguin, Gonzalo Nieto Feliner, Alex Baumel, “Advances in genotyping microsatellite markers through sequencing and consequences of scoring methods for Ceratonia siliqua (Leguminosae)”, Applications in Plant Sciences, 2018).

“The carob tree has been neglected by population genetic studies despite its historical and economical importance in Mediterranean societies.. investigated the genetic diversity and structure of the carob trees and their root symbiont community to characterize the specificity of symbiotic interactions at the Mediterranean scale,” ungkap Dr. Juan Viruel, Research Leader bidang Conservation Genetics pada Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, dan lead author studi ilmiah ini (Botanical Society of America, 6/3/2019).

Jumlah variasi genetik spesies selalu berbeda dalam genomenya. Penanda-penanda mikro-satelit (simple sequence repeats) sering dianalisis karena laju evolusinya cepat dan keragamanan populasinya tinggi yang terurai dalam distribusi variasi genetik. Dalam kasus spesies-spesies mengalami ‘bottleneck’ yang kuat, jumlah penanda-penanda mikrosatelit mungkin tidak dapat memecahkan masalah genetik populasinya. Dalam hal ini, tim peneliti itu menemukan bahwa penggunaan NGS untuk menemukan variasi tambahan mikrosatelit-mikrosatelit, dapat mempertajam resoluasi variasi DNA dari seluruh populasi (Science Daily, 6/3/2019).

Riset ini didanai oleh French National research Agency, Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship. “The costs of our NGS-based method to detect polymorphisms in [microsatellite] amplicons is comparable to the costs of using the traditional size scoring when working with a big number of samples. In our study, we found additional sources of polymorphism (specifically, single-nucleotide polymorphism and insertion/deletion polymorphisms) in 87% of the loci analyzed. Studies dealing with very limited genetic diversity...could be benefited by incorporating sequence information. We have significantly increased the variation detected in carob populations throughout the Mediterranean.We have found very interesting phylogeographic patterns that will refute previous hypotheses about its origin in the Mediterranean.But we will tell that story in the next paper,” papar Dr. Juan Viruel, (Botanical Society of America, 6/3/2019). 

Oleh: Servas Pandur