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Pengguna Teknologi Mungkin Lebih Percaya ‘Dokter Digital’

Orang-orang yang sangat percaya pada kemampuan teknologi dan kemampuan teknologinya sendiri, sangat mungkin lebih menerima dan menggunakan jasa-jasa layanan dan penyedia jasa kesehatan digital atau ‘dokter digital’. Begitu hasil riset dari ahli pada Pennsylvania State University (Penn State / PSU)--yang didirikan tahun 1855 di Pennsylvania, Amerika Serikat--yang dirilis awal Mei 2019 (Penn State, 10/5/2019).

Tim peneliti Penn State University itu merekrut 160 peserta dari tenaga kerja online, Amazon Mechanical Turk, untuk memahami lebih baik tentang psikologi pengguna dalam menerima sistem otomatisasi layanan di klinik-klinik kesehatan. Riset ini didukung oleh National Science Foundation di Amerika Serikat. Hasil riset itu dipaparkan pada seminar ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems di Glasgow, Skotlandia (Science Daily, 10/5/2019).

“There is increasing use of automated systems in the medical field, where intake is now often conducted through a kiosk instead of by a receptionist, We investigated user acceptance of these 'robot receptionists,' along with automated nurses and doctors. In addition, we tested whether the form that these roles took -- human-like, avatar or robot -- made a difference in user acceptance,” ungkap S. Shyam Sundar, James P. Jimirro Professor of Media Effects,co-direktur Media Effects Research Laboratory dan afiliasi Penn State, (Penn State, 10/5/2019)

Tahapan riset tim Penn State University itu : pertama, tim peneliti mengukur keyakinan dan sikap yang telah terbentuk dari peserta terhadap mesin-mesin (machine heuristic). “A machine heuristic involves stereotypes people have about machines, including their beliefs in machines' infallibility, objectivity and efficiency,” papar Sundar (Penn State, 10/5/2019).

Kedua, tim peneliti meminta peserta menunjukkan tingkat persetujuannya terhadap pernyataan seperti, "Ketika mesin, daripada manusia, menyelesaikan tugas, hasilnya lebih akurat." Para peneliti juga mengajukan berbagai pertanyaan kepada peserta untuk menilai “penggunaan daya” (power usage), tingkat keahlian dan kenyamanan menggunakan mesin.

Ketiga, tim peneliti mengekspos peserta ke berbagai kombinasi penyedia layanan kesehatan, seperti resepsionis, perawat dan dokter; dan tipe agen, seperti manusia, avatar, dan mesin. Mereka memprakarsai interaksi obrolan online dengan berbagai jenis avatar untuk menguji penerimaan peserta terhadap penyedia layanan kesehatan tersebut dan niat peserta menggunakan penyedia layanan digital tersebut di masa datang.

“We found that the higher people's beliefs were in the machine heuristic, the more positive their attitude was toward the agent and the greater their intention was to use the service in the future. We also found that power usage predicted acceptance of digital healthcare providers. A power user (a person with advanced computer skills) is more likely to accept a robot doctor, for example, than a non-power user,” ungkap Sundar (Penn State, 10/5/2019).

Tim peneliti itu memperhatikan juga dampak dosis ganda dari heuristik mesin dan penggunaan daya. “We found that if you're high on machine heuristic and you're high on power usage, you have the most positive attitude toward automated healthcare providers. This combination seems to make people more accepting of these technologies,” papar Sundar (Penn State, 10/5/2019).

Efek itu serupa pada semua kondisi eksperimen. Jadi, orang yang sangat patuh terhadap heuristik mesin dan pengguna daya (power users) memiliki sikap hampir sama positif terhadap semua bentuk penyedia layanan kesehatan digital—mirip-manusia, avatar atau robot.  “Our results suggest that the key to implementing automation in healthcare facilities may be to design the interface so that it appeals to expert users who have a high belief in machine abilities. Designers can direct resources toward improving features such as chat functionality instead of anthropomorphizing healthcare robots. In addition, increasing the number of power users and the general belief that machines are trustworthy may increase the adoption of automated services,” ungkap Sundar (Penn State, 10/5/2019). 

Oleh: Servas Pandur