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Bateri Lebih Aman dan Ringan Untuk Aplikasi Militer & Sipil

Kini terbuka peluang para prajurit membawa bateri lebih ringan dari 15-25 pon, tetapi dengan daya-tahan, kemampuan energi dan tingkat keamanan sama. Begitu hasil riset tim ahli pada Army Research Laboratory (ARL)—lab riset korporasi pada U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command—dan University of Maryland di Amerika Serikat. Riset itu berhasil mengidentifikasi kimia katoda baru untuk teknologi bateri (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 10/5/2019).

Kimia katoda baru untuk teknologi bateri itu benar-benar bebas dari transisi logam dan kapasitasnya sangat tinggi menyimpan Li-ion hingga ~ 4.2 V. Kemampuan ini belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya. Penemuan ini membuka peluang meningkatkan kepadatan energi bateri lithium-ion dan menjamin keamanan karena sifat encer elektrolite (electrolyte).

“Such a high energy, safe and potentially flexible new battery will likely give the Soldiers what they need on the battlefield: reliable high energy source with robust tolerance against abuse. It is expected to significantly enhance the mobility and lethality of the Soldier while unburdening logistics requirements,” Dr. Kang Xu, peneliti senior bidang kimia pada ARL (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 10/5/2019).

Hasil riset itu telah dirilis oleh jurnal Nature edisi Mei 2019. Riset itu dipimpin oleh Chunsheng Wang, R.F. dan F.R. Wright Distinguished Chair Professor pada  Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry di University of Maryland, Amerika Serikat. “The energy output of water-based battery reported in this work is comparable to ones based on flammable organic liquids other than water, but is much safer. It gets about 25% extra the energy density of an ordinary cell phone battery. The new cathode is able to hold, per gram, 240 milliamps for an hour of operation, whereas the kind widely used cathode in cell phones, laptops, and tools (LiCoO2), provides only 120-140 milliamps each hour per gram,” ungkap Wang.

Tim riset melibatkan Kang Xu dan Oleg Borodin, PhD, ilmuwan ARL yang meracik bateri itu ke dalam tahap uji-coba  dengan konfigurasi button cell sebagai sarana  uji-coba laboratorium penelitian dan dengan rincian konversi – interkalasi kimia guna meningkatkan kepadatan energi. “This new cathode chemistry happens to be operating ideally in our previously-developed 'water-in-salt' aqueous electrolyte in Science in 2015, which makes it even more unique - it combines both high energy density of non-aqueous systems and high safety of aqueous systems,” ungkap Chongyin Yang, penulis utama naskah ilmiah riset itu dan asisten riset pada Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering di College Park (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 10/5/2019).

Selain bateri portabel para prajurit, kimia bateri encer (aqueous battery chemistry) ini juga dapat digunakan dalam aplikasi energi skala besar seperti kilowatt atau megawatt atau syarat keamanan dan toksisitas bateri menjadi perhatian utama, termasuk bateri tidak mudah terbakar pesawat terbang, kapal angkatan laut, pesawat ruang angkasa, serta aplikasi kebutuhan sipil elektronik portabel, kendaraan listrik dan penyimpanan jaringan skala besar.

“The paper by the University of Maryland and the Army team is the most creative new battery chemistry I have seen in at least 10 years. The fact that the LiCl and LiBr reversibly convert and form halogen intercalated graphite is truly incredible. The team has demonstrated encouraging reversibility for 150 cycles and have shown that high energy densities should be attainable in 4-volt cells that contain no transition metals and no non-aqueous solvents. It remains to be seen if a practical long-lived commercial cell can be developed, but I am very excited by this research,” papar  Professor Jeff Dahn dari Dalhousie University di Kanada dan pelopor teknologi bateri dan satu dari penemu bateri lithium-ion (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 10/5/2019). 

 

 

Oleh: Servas Pandur