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Konsep Baru Arsitektur Kamp-Kamp Pengungsi

Sejak tahun 2013, Profesor Rana Abudayyeh (2019), ahli arsitektur interior yang berlisensi di Yordania, meneliti dan mengkaji ruang dan lansekap 80 ribu pengungsi asal Suriah di kamp Zaatari Yordania. Abudayyeh berupaya mengetahui pengalaman para pengungsi itu di lingkungan kamp Zaatari Yordania dan mengajar konsep ruang dan tempat hidup dinamis kepada para pengungsi. Abudayyeh juga menemukan perubahan kamp Zaatari sejak 2013 (University of Tennessee-Knoxville, 20/5/2019).

“A Syrian refugee living in a Jordanian camp, or an immigrant to the United States, will have multiple associations with place enabled by digital technology. They may live in a new environment, but they carry archival memories and images of their home with them on smart devices, and that will influence the way they interact with their physical space,” ungkap Rana Abudayyeh (University of Tennessee-Knoxville, 20/5/2019).

Hasil riset Rana Abudayyeh dirilis oleh jurnal Architecture_MPS edisi Mei 2019 (Rana Abudayyeh, “Dynamic Landscapes, Emerging Territories”, Architecture_MPS, 2019). Dari hasil risetnya di kamp pengungsi Zaatari Yordania, Rana Abudayyeh menemukan bahwa para pengungsi telah menanam sayur-sayuran atau mengelola kebun-kebun sayur; jenis pekerjaan ini tidak mudah di lingkungan kamp padang pasir seperti Zaatari Yordania (Science Daily, 20/5/2019).

“Temporary shelters previously organized in single files, like in traditional camp settings, were physically moved by residents to incorporate courtyards, where dwellings of extended family members surrounded each other. It reminded the people of home, so even though it was uncommon they shaped their environment to look like what they had fixed in their memories,” papar Abudayyeh (University of Tennessee-Knoxville, 20/5/2019).

Respons historis-tradisional dari arsitektural terhadap kamp-kamp pengungsi selama ini ialah penciptaan unit-unit tempat penampungan. Ruang interior tidak dirancang untuk dipengaruhi oleh penghuni, karena kamp merupakan ruang sementara. Namun, seringkali orang-orang tinggal di kamp lebih lama dari perkiraan Pemerintah (Science Daily, 20/5/2019).

Misalnya, bekas kamp Jerash dan Baqa'a di Yordania, negeri asal Abudayyeh,  menampung para pengungsi asal Palestina selama Perang Arab-Israel tahun 1967. Kini zona kamp pengungsi ini menjadi kota-kota dan bangunan-bangunan pengganti tenda-tenda dan struktur-struktur pabrikasi. Karena itu, Abudayyeh membuat konsep desain baru tempat penampungan sementara dengan fokus ruang interior, dinding penyisip, ruang pembagi, dan permukaan-permukaan interior agar penghuni memiliki ruang pekarangan sesuai kebutuhan uniknya (Science Daily, 20/5/2019).

“This has significant implications for architecture, as architecture is a discipline rooted in place. The interior of a space carries the code of everyday life and formulates the backdrop for spatial memories that play an integral role in identity, whether a person is a refugee, migrant, or student living in university housing,” ungkap Abudayyeh (University of Tennessee-Knoxville, 20/5/2019).

Penerapan konsep baru desain kamp pengungsi itu, menurut Abudayyeh, mensyaratkan kolaborasi berbagai pihak antara lain arsitektur, perancang, perencanaan, organisasi bantuan internasional, dan Pemerintah guna membangun dan mengelola pola hunian pengungsi. Misalnya, kamp pengungsi Zaatari menggunakan sumber energi solar yang dikelola oleh badan internasional (Science Daily, 20/5/2019).

“The UN Refugee Agency states one person is forcibly displaced every two seconds. The Middle East is one of the regions where, based on precedent, displacement will happen. If we can embed a logistical infrastructure in host countries beforehand that addresses the needs of displaced people preemptively, it could both create a better setting for residents and provide other benefits for the host. This is evidence that good design can pay off for host countries and institutions,” papar Abudayyeh (University of Tennessee-Knoxville, 20/5/2019). 

Oleh: Servas Pandur