• LATEST
    • A PHP Error was encountered

      Severity: Notice

      Message: Undefined variable: latest

      Filename: views/_header.php

      Line Number: 48

      A PHP Error was encountered

      Severity: Warning

      Message: Invalid argument supplied for foreach()

      Filename: views/_header.php

      Line Number: 48


Perlindungan Dini Lawan Infeksi TB

Kolaborasi studi ilmiah –-penelitian, kajian, penulisan dan supervisi-– 36 ahli TB dari berbagai negara – Washington University School of Medicine di St. Louis (Amerika Serikat), Nairobi (Kenya), Inggris, Denmark, Meksiko, dan Africa Health Research Institute di KwaZulu-Natal (Afrika Selatan)—berhasil mengidentifikasi satu sel induk (a master cell) yang mengatur pertahanan kekebalan tubuh pada hari-hari awal kritis pasca seseorang terinfeksi tuberkulosis (TB). Karena itu, meningkatkan aktivitas sel-sel itu dapat membantu pengurangan jutaan infeksi TB baru di seluruh dunia tiap tahun (Amanda Ardain et al, 2019).

“The immune response to the TB bacteria hinges on the early response of this cell, and that opens up a whole new avenue for TB control. Now we can start thinking about ways to target this cell to help the body fight off the bacteria before they get a chance to establish themselves,” ungkap co-senior author studi ilmiah itu, Shabaana Abdul Khader, PhD, profesor patologi dan imunologi, dan interim head pada The Department of Molecular Microbiology, School of Medicine (Washington University School of Medicine, 5/6/2019).

Vaksin dirancang untuk memperingatkan sistem kekebalan tubuh terhadap mikroba berbahaya dengan menghadirkan sedikit mikroba itu ke sel imun adaptif. Tetapi, dalam kasus TB, kekebalan adaptif sendiri, bahkan ketika dipaksakan oleh vaksinasi, mungkin lambat melindungi orang. Sehingga TB masih menjadi wabah infeksi sangat berisiko. Data PBB (2017) menyebutkan bahwa sekitar 1,5 juta orang meninggal karena TB tahun 2017 (Science Daily, 5/6/2019).

“Positive results from several recent vaccine trials make this an exciting time to be working in TB immunology. The more we can understand about the interaction between the bacteria that cause TB and people, the more chance we have of building on these gains and defeating this deadly epidemic,” ungkap co-senior author studi ilmiah ini, Alasdair Leslie, PhD, asal Africa Health Research Institute (Washington University School of Medicine, 5/6/2019).

Khader, Leslie dan koleganya—termasuk para co-first author Amanda Ardain, mahasiswi pada lab Leslie; Racquel Domingo-Gonzalez, PhD, dan Shibali Das, PhD—keduanya peneliti post-doctoral di lab Khader—mempelajari hewan dan manusia guna mengidentifikasi sel-sel imun dan protein yang melindungi tubuh manusia terhadap bakteri TB pada hari-hari awal infeksi TB (Science Daily, 5/6/2019).

Tim peneliti itu menemukan bahwa sel (kelompok 3 sel limfoid bawaan / ILC3) berperan penting dalam dua minggu pertama infeksi. Sel-sel ILC3 milik bawaan dari sistem kekebalan, mendeteksi dan merespons penyerang asing dalam tubuh seseorang. Para ahli biologi telah lama percaya bahwa sistem kekebalan tubuh bawaan kekurangan memori untuk mikroba tertentu, tetapi penelitian terbaru menunjukkan bahwa beberapa sel kekebalan bawaan mungkin memiliki memori (Washington University School of Medicine, 5/6/2019).

Pada manusia dan hewan yang menderita penyakit TBC, sel-sel ILC3 berkumpul di paru-paru, terutama dalam struktur kekebalan yang mengepung dan membunuh bakteri. Setelah pasien berhasil diobati dengan antibiotik, sel-sel ILC3 menjadi lebih banyak dalam aliran darahnya, menunjukkan bahwa sel-sel tidak lagi diperlukan dalam paru-paru untuk melawan infeksi.

Sebagian besar pengembang vaksin mengabaikan sistem kekebalan bawaan karena dianggap kurang mampu mengingat mikroba tertentu. Tetapi penelitian terbaru menunjukkan bahwa sel kekebalan bawaan mungkin memiliki memori atau dapat dilatih untuk menjadi lebih efektif, sehingga memperkuat pertahanan kekebalan tubuh bawaan dan memberikan perlindungan luas. Vaksin melawan TB (vaksin BCG) dikembangkan satu abad silam dan dirancang untuk menargetkan sistem kekebalan adaptif. Tetapi sekarang ada anggapan bahwa kekebalan tubuh bekerja sebagian melalui pelatihan sistem kekebalan tubuh bawaan.

“Children who get the BCG vaccine are protected not only against TB but many different infectious diseases and cancer for a few years. They have lower rates of sickness and death from all causes than children who weren't vaccinated. We wouldn't want to replace the BCG vaccine, but we may be able to find a compound that we can use to boost immunity in vaccinated children, when the effects of the BCG start to wear off. It's still an open question whether ILCs in the lung are trainable or have memory and how long the training or memory would last. But if we can train them and get a population of these cells primed and ready to go in the lung, that might be one way we can make a more effective vaccine for TB,” papar Khader (Washington University School of Medicine, 5/6/2019).

Studi ilmiah itu didanai oleh National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Stephen I. Morse Fellowship, Department of Medicine pada  University of Rochester, Searle Scholars Program, Beckman Young Investigator Program, dan lembaga-lembaga lainnya. Hasil riset itu dirilis oleh jurnal Nature, 5 Juni 2019 (Amanda Ardain, et al, “Group 3 innate lymphoid cells mediate early protective immunity against tuberculosis”,  Nature, 2019).

Studi ilmiah—riset, kajian, penulisan, dan supervisi— itu melibatkan banyak ahli yaitu (1) kelompok ahli Amanda Ardain, Racquel Domingo-Gonzalez, dan Shibali Das memberikan kontribusi setara dalam studi ilmiah itu; Amanda Ardain asal Africa Health Research Institute, Durban; dan School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban di Afrika Selatan; Racquel Domingo-Gonzalez dan Shibali Das berasal dari Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Amerika Serikat.

(2) kelompok ahli kedua yaitu  Samuel W. Kazer asal Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Department of Chemistry, Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA di Amerika Serikat; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA di Amerika Serikat; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA di Amerika Serikat; Nicole C. Howard asal Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Amerika Serikat; Alveera Singh asal Africa Health Research Institute, Durban di Afrika Selatan dan School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban di Afrika Selatan; Mushtaq Ahmed asal Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Amerika Serikat.

Berikutnya, Shepherd Nhamoyebonde asal Africa Health Research Institute, Durban dan School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban di Afrika Selatan; Javier Rangel-Moreno asal Division of Allergy, Immmunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Universtiy of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY di Amerika Serikat; Paul Ogongo asal Africa Health Research Institute, Durban; School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban di Afrika Selatan dan Department of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Institute of Primate Research, Nairobi di Kenya; Lan Lu asal Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Amerika Serikat.

Selain itu, Duran Ramsuran asal School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban di Afrika Selatan; Maria de la Luz Garcia-Hernandez asal Division of Allergy, Immmunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Universtiy of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY di Amerika Serikat; Tyler K. Ulland asal Division of Immunobiology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Amerika Serikat; Matthew Darby asal IDM, University of Cape Town, Cape Town di Afrika Selatan; Eugene Park asal Division of Immunobiology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Afrika Serikat dan Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Amerika Serikat; Farina Karim asal Africa Health Research Institute, Durban di Afrika Selatan; Laura Melocchi asal Division of Immunobiology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Amerika Serikat.

Ahli lainnya Rajhmun Madansein asal Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Nelson Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban di Afrika Selatan; Kaylesh Jay Dullabh asal Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Nelson Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban di Afrika Selatan; Micah Dunlap asal Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Amerika Serikat; Nancy Marin-Agudelo asal Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Amerika Serikat; Takashi Ebihara asal Division of Immunobiology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Amerika Serikat dan Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Amerika Serikat.

Ahli lainnya, Thumbi Ndung’u asal Africa Health Research Institute, Durban dan School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban di Afrika Selatan; Deepak Kaushal asal Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA di Amerika Serikat; Alexander S. Pyim asal Africa Health Research Institute, Durban dan School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban di Afrika Selatan; Jay K. Kolls asal Tulane University Health Sciences, New Orleans, LA di Amerika Serikat; Adrie Steyn asal Africa Health Research Institute, Durban dan School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban di Afrika Selatan serta Department of Microbiology, Centres for AIDS Research and Free Radical Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Amerika Serikat; Joaquín Zúñiga asal Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City dan Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Mexico City di Meksiko

Ahli lainnya William Horsnell asal IDM, University of Cape Town, Cape Town di Afrika Selatan dan Institute of Microbiology and Infection, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham di Inggris; Wayne M. Yokoyama asal Division of Immunobiology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; dan Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Amerika Serikat.

Alex K. Shalek asal Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Department of Chemistry, Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA; dan Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA di Amerika Serikat; Henrik N. Kløverpris asal Africa Health Research Institute, Durban; School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban di Afika Selatan dan Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen di Denmark, dan Department of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London di Inggris; Marco Colonna asal Division of Allergy, Immmunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Universtiy of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY di Amerika Serikat.

(3) kelompok ahli supervisi studi ilmiah ini yaitu Alasdair Leslie asal Africa Health Research Institute, Durban; School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban di Afrika Selatan, dan Department of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London di Inggris; Shabaana A. Khader asal Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO di Amerika Serikat. 

Oleh: Servas Pandur