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Pertanian Global: Bakal Mengancam Keragaman Hayati

Rakyat dan Pemerintah berbagai negara harus menyeimbangkan program dan upaya pelestarian keragamann hayati dan program dan upaya meningkatkan produksi pertanian guna meraih ketahanan pangan dan pelestarian keragaman hayati. Alasannya, lonjakan permintaan bahan bakar (sumber energi) alternatif dari biomassa, perluasan lahan pertanian dan intensifikasi pertanian tidak hanya meningkatkan produksi pertanian dunia, tetapi juga merapuhkan keanekaragaman-hayati khususnya di zona tropis (Science Daily, 28/6/2019).

Begitu hasil riset dan kajian lintas-disiplin ilmuwan di Ludwig-Maximiians-Universitaet (LMU) di Munich, Jerman; Kiel Institute for the World Economy; Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (Leipzig), dan Palacký University di Olomouc di Republik Ceko. Hasil riset tim ilmuwan ini dirilis oleh jurnal Nature Communications, edisi 28 Juni 2019 (Florian Zabel, Ruth Delzeit, Julia M. Schneider, Ralf Seppelt, Wolfram Mauser, Tomáš Václavík, “Global impacts of future cropland expansion and intensification on agricultural markets and biodiversity”, Nature Communications, 2019).

Riset itu melibatkan ilmuwan yaitu (1) Dr. Florian Zabel asal Department of Geography, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80333 Munich di Jerman; (2) Ruth Delzeit asal Kiel Institute for the World Economy, 24105 Kiel di Jerman; (3) Julia M. Schneider  asal Department of Geography, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80333 Munich di Jerman;

(4) Profesor Dr. Ralf Seppelt  asal  Department of Computational Landscape Ecology, UFZ—Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, 04318 Leipzig di Jerman; Institute of Geoscience & Geography, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale) di Jerman dan iDiv—German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research, 04103 Leipzig di Jerman;

(5) Wolfram Mauser asal Department of Geography, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80333 Munich di Jerman; dan (6) Tomáš Václavík, PhD, asal Department of Computational Landscape Ecology, UFZ—Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, 04318 Leipzig di Jerman; Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Palacký University Olomouc, 78371 Olomouc di Republik Ceko; dan Global Change Research Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences (CzechGlobe), 60300 Brno di Republik Ceko. Kontribusi Florian Zabel, Ruth Delzeit, dan Tomáš Václavík, setara dalam studi ilmiah ini.

“Agriculture is one of the major drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide, and increases in production are almost always achieved at the expense of biodiversity. But whether and where production rises due to intensification or expansion of cropland does make a difference,” ungkap Dr. Florian Zabel asal The Department of Geography and Remote Sensing pada LMU Ludwig-Maximiians-Universitaet (LMU) di Munich, Jerman (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 28/6/2019)

Dr. Florian Zabel dan koleganya (2019) meneliti risiko dari strategi dan upaya meraih keuntungan produksi global yang sama tahun 2030, melalui ekspansi lahan pertanian atau intensifikasi pertanian, dan menganalisis dampaknya terhadap pasar pertanian dan keanekaragaman hayati. Hasilnya, kedua skenario—ekspansi lahan pertanian dan intensifikasi pertanian—mengakibatkan harga-harga produk pertanian turun di seluruh dunia; bahkan di zona-zona produksi merosot, harga-harga lebih rendah; perluasan lahan pertanian sebagian besar mempengaruhi hotspot keanekaragaman hayati di Amerika Tengah dan Amerika Selatan; sedangkan intensifikasi lahan pertanian mengancam keanekaragaman hayati terutama di Afrika Sub-Sahara, India, dan Tiongkok.

“Our results show that, for a given rise in food production, the impact of cropland expansion on biodiversity is many times greater than that of the intensification scenario. This is because expansion can be expected to occur in those regions with the highest existing levels of biodiversity, mainly in Central and South America,” papar Dr. Tomáš Václavík asal Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences pada Palacký University di Olomouc, Republik Ceko (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 28/6/2019)

Hasil riset Florian Zabel dan koleganya (2019) juga menunjukkan bahwa keuntungan produksi bakal terjadi dengan biaya atau mengorbankan keanekaragaman hayati terutama di wilayah tropis negara berkembang;  sedangkan wilayah Eropa dan Amerika Utara meraih untung atau manfaat dari harga pertanian yang lebih rendah di pasar dunia tanpa memperhatikan risiko keanekaragaman hayati.

“This result has potentially critical implications, because it suggests that, while all regions - including North America and the EU - will profit from sinking food prices, the threat to biodiversity is greatest in developing countries in the tropical regions,” ungkap Dr. Ruth Delzeit asal Kiel Institute for the World Economy.

Dengan membuat kajian dan pemetaan potensi-potensi konflik di masa depan, tim ilmuwan itu menunjukkan prioritas program pelestarian keragaman hayati dengan menyeimbangkan produksi pertanian yang bermanfaat atau bertujuan konservasi.

“Most of the areas with high levels of biodiversity that are suitable for agricultural expansion and intensification in the coming years are not currently protected. We therefore recommend to develop global mechanisms which recognize land as a limited resource. Measures should be implemented to protect biodiversity in landscapes that are in use rather than focusing solely on protection sites,” papar Professor Ralf Seppelt asal The Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research di Leipzig (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 28/6/2019).

Oleh: Servas Pandur