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Pemanasan Global Percepat Siklus Air Di Daratan-Musim

Pemanasan global akan mempercepat siklus air di wilayah-wilayah daratan yang mengalami siklus musim hujan dan musim kemarau (land mansoon regions) sepanjang tahun, khususnya Asia Selatan dan Asia Tenggara. Zona-zona ini lazimnya mengalami siklus musim hujan Mei-September dan musim kemarau Oktober-April. Pemanasan global juga akan memperbesar kontras antara musim hujan dan musim kemarau di zona-zona ini. Begitu hasil riset Wenxia Zhang dan koleganya pada Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, asal Tiongkok (Wenxia Zhang, et al, 2019).

Proyek riset Wenxia Zhang dkk (2019) didanai oleh National Natural Science Foundation of China, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, International Partnership Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, Ministry of Science and Technology of China di Tiongkok.

“The global monsoon regions deserve specific attention as they extensively affect the global water cycle. Under future global warming, we will see an accelerated water cycle over the entire global monsoon region, as evidenced by the coherent increases in its various cycling fluxes, including the annual-mean precipitation, evaporation, total runoff and surface fresh water fluxes,” papar Tianjun Zhou, author koresponden karya ilmiah itu dan ilmuwan senior pada State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Tiongkok (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 23/7/2019).

Hasil riset Wenxia Zhang dkk dirilis oleh junal Journal of Climate, 5 Juni 2019 (Wenxia Zhang, Tianjun Zhou1, Lixia Zhang and Liwei Zou, Future intensification of the water cycle with an enhanced annual cycle over global land monsoon regions”, Journal of Climate, June 5, 2019).  Tim ahli yang terlibat dalam riset itu ialah (1) Wenxia Zhang asal State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, Tiongkok dan  University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Tiongkok;

(2) Tianjun Zhou asal State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, Tiongkok; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Tiongkok; dan CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, Tiongkok;

Perihal dampak pemanasan global terhadap siklus air di daratan dunia yang mengalami siklus musim hujan dan musim kemarau, Tanjun Zhou menguraikan, “Apart from the spatial differences, the water cycle changes also vary with season. The precipitation, runoff, and surface fresh water fluxes would increase most prominently in the wet season, but slightly reduce in the dry season. On one hand, this indicates an enlarged wet-dry season contrast in the monsoon regions. In terms of the human use of water resources, the changing seasonality can be described as 'wet season gets wetter, dry season gets drier'. On the other hand, there might be increasing flood risks in the wet season.” (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 23/7/2019).

(3) Lixia Zhang asal  State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, Tiongkok dan CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, Tiongkok;

(4) Liwei Zou asal State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, Tiongkok dan CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, Tiongkok.

“The surface soil water would deplete all year round as a result of atmospheric warming. This could reduce crop yields and further threaten food security for the dense populations.The seasonal changes are more remarkable and robust than the annual- mean changes. We should be aware of and prepared for the potential additional flood and drought risks in the populous monsoon regions,” papar Tanjun Zhou (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 23/7/2019). 

 

Oleh: Servas Pandur