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Peta Perubahan & Kepunahan Keragaman Hayati Planet Bumi

Akhir-akhir ini, punahnya keragaman-hayati paling banyak terjadi di daerah-daerah tropis, termasuk zona Negara RI;  perubahan keragaman-hayati ekosistem laut melebihi perubahan keragaman-hayati di zona darat planet Bumi. Begitu hasil riset kolaborasi 23 ahli asal Inggris, Jerman, Finlandia, Amerika Serikat dan Kanada, yang dipimpin oleh ilmuwan asal University of St Andrews di Inggris. Riset itu memetakan perubahan keragaman-hayati di zona darat dan laut planet Bumi, yang dirilis oleh jurnal Science edisi Oktober 18 Oktober 2019 (Vol. 366, Issue 6463, hlm. 339-345).

“Our study shows biodiversity is changing everywhere, but we are not losing biodiversity everywhere. Some places are recovering and adapting. When biodiversity is in the news these days, it is often because the Amazon is on fire, or there is a global mass mortality event in coral reefs, and rightly so, because these are terrifying news,” ungkap kepala penelitian kolaborasi ini, Dr. Maria Dornelas, asal School of Biology pada  University of St Andrews. (McGill University, 17/10/2019).

Riset kolaborasi ahli itu mencapai konsensus (pandangan longitudinal) tentang variasi perubahan keragaman-hayati akhir-akhir ini di planet Bumi. Ada perubahan negatif dan positif dalam ekosistem planet Bumi; meskipun rata-rata jumlah spesies hidup di setiap zona, tidak berubah, banyak zona mendapatkan atau kehilangan spesies. (Science Daily, 17/10/2019).

“However, there is a lot of recovery also taking place silently in the background, and many places where not much is happening. Our study puts these things on the map and shows they are not contradictory. We knew that biodiversity is affected by many different human actions, with different timings and effects, but we didn't have a clear understanding of what were the net effects of these actions across the planet," papar Dr. Maria Dornelas. (McGill University, 17/10/2019).

Tim ilmuwan itu meneliti variasi longitudinal kekayaan dan komposisi spesies; mereka menyatukan dan memetakan lebih dari 50.000 seri waktu keanekaragaman-hayati dari hasil penelitian di seluruh planet Bumi; mereka menggunakan basis data keanekaragaman-hayati BioTIME pada di University of St Andrews, guna menentukan variasi geografis perubahan keanekaragaman-hayati di planet Bumi.

“Our study shows how biodiversity change varies geographically. The species that make up local assemblages are changing everywhere, but these changes are happening faster in marine compared to terrestrial assemblages," ungkap Shane A. Blowes, penulis utama (first-author) studi ilmiah ini, asal German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) di Jerman. (McGill University, 17/10/2019).

Hasil riset kolaborasi tim ahli internasional itu dirilis oleh jurnal Science edisi Oktober 2019 (Shane A. Blowes, Sarah R. Supp, Laura H. Antão, Amanda Bates, Helge Bruelheide, Jonathan M. Chase, Faye Moyes, Anne Magurran, Brian Mcgill, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Marten Winter, Anne D. Bjorkman, Diana E. Bowler, Jarrett E. K. Byrnes, Andrew Gonzalez, Jes Hines, Forest Isbell, Holly P. Jones, Laetitia M. Navarro, Patrick L. Thompson, Mark Vellend, Conor Waldock, Maria Dornelas, “The geography of biodiversity change in marine and terrestrial assemblages”, Science, 2019).

Selama ini, perubahan keragaman-hayati tidak mudah dipetakan dan dipahami, antara lain karena banyak cara berbeda memetakan spesies-spesies unik per daerah. Perihal ini, Assistant Professor, Sarah R. Supp, PhD, penulis utama (first author) studi ilmiah ini asal Denison University, Ohio, Amerika Serikat menyatakan : “Biodiversity change is complex to understand because it can be measured in many different ways, including the number of unique species, and the identities of those species.” (McGill University, 17/10/2019).

Namun, riset tim ahli internasional itu dapat memetakan variasi perubahan keragaman-hayati di planet Bumi akhir-akhir ini. “Our study shows that while some locations have experienced decreases in the numbers of species, others show increases or little change at all. More consistently, however, the identities of species appear to be changing at nearly all sites - this kind of change is critical to planning conservation and management strategies, particularly for sites exhibiting rapid turnover,” ungkap Sarah R. Supp. (McGill University, 17/10/2019).

Riset kolaborasi itu melibatkan banyak ahli yaitu (1) Shane A. Blowes asal German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Jerman; Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Computer Science, Halle (Saale), Jerman; (2) Sarah R. Supp asal Data Analytics Program, Denison University, Granville, Ohio, Amerika Serikat; (3) Laura H. Antão asal Centre for Biological Diversity, School of Biology, University of St. Andrews, Inggris; Department of Biology and CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; Research Centre for Ecological Change, Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finlandia.

(4) Amanda Bates asal Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Newfoundland, Kanada; (5) Helge Bruelheide asal German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Jerman dan  Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Halle (Saale), Jerman; (6) Jonathan M. Chase asal German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Jerman; dan Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Computer Science, Halle (Saale), Jerman;

(7) Faye Moyes asal Centre for Biological Diversity, School of Biology, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Inggris; (8) Anne Magurran asal Centre for Biological Diversity, School of Biology, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Inggris; (9) Brian McGill asal  School of Biology and Ecology, University of Maine, Orono, ME, Amerika Serikat;

(10) Isla H. Myers-Smith asal School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Inggris; (11) Marten Winter asal German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Jerman; (12) Anne D. Bjorkman asal  Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, Amerika Serikat;

(13) Diana E. Bowler asal German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Jerman; (14) Jarrett E. K. Byrnes asal Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, Inggris; (15) Andrew Gonzalez asal Department of Biology, Quebec Centre for Biodiversity Science, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Kanada;

(16) Jes Hines asal German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Jerman dan Leipzig University, Institute of Biology, Leipzig, Jerman; (17) Forest Isbell asal Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, Inggris; (18) Holly P. Jones asal Department of Biological Sciences and Institute for the Study of the Environment, Sustainability, and Energy, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, Amerika Serikat;

(19) Laetitia M. Navarro asal German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Jerman dan Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Halle (Saale), Jerman; (20) Patrick L. Thompson asal Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Kanada; (21) Mark Vellend asal Département de biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Kanada;

(22) Conor Waldock asal Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK & Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, Inggris; dan (23) Maria Dornelas asal Centre for Biological Diversity, School of Biology, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Inggris.

Hasil riset tim ahli itu memetakan perubahan keragaman-hayati di planet Bumi dan dapat memandu upaya pemulihan keragaman-hayati global. “Our study provides an important description of biodiversity change across the planet and highlights the value of monitoring biodiversity through time. Further, it provides motivation to increase our data sharing and establishing new long-term field sites to include greater geographic coverage - for example, more tropical and freshwater systems,” papar Sarah Supp (McGill University, 17/10/2019).

Kesimpulan hasil riset itu antara lain bahwa planet Bumi sedang melewati tata-ulang geografis keragaman-hayati sebagai respons terhadap kegiatan-kegiatan manusia dan perubahan iklim. Perihal ini, peneliti Brian McGill researcher dan co-author Dr. Andrew Gonzalez menyatakan : “The Earth is going through a great geographic reorganization of its biodiversity in response to human activities and climate change. Given what we know it is likely this will continue for decades to come.” (McGill University, 17/10/2019). 

Oleh: Servas Pandur