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Pengayaan Suara Akustik Pulihkan Terumbu Karang

Suara-suara terumbu karang sehat (sounds of healthy reefs) dapat menarik ikan muda ke terumbu karang tergradasi. Pengayaan akustik (acoustic enrichment) suara terumbu karang sehat dapat menjadi sarana baru pengelolaan terumbu karang tergradasi atau rapuh. Begitu hasil riset pada Great Barrier Reef (Australia) dari tim peneliti asal University of Exeter dan University of Bristol di Inggris dan  James Cook University dan Australian Institute of Marine Science di Australia yang dirilis oleh jurnal Nature Communications edisi November 2019.  

“Healthy coral reefs are remarkably noisy places - the crackle of snapping shrimp and the whoops and grunts of fish combine to form a dazzling biological soundscape. Juvenile fish home in on these sounds when they're looking for a place to settle. Reefs become ghostly quiet when they are degraded, as the shrimps and fish disappear, but by using loudspeakers to restore this lost soundscape, we can attract young fish back again,” ungkap Profesor Steve Simpson, senior author studi ilmiah itu asal University of Exeter. (University of Exter, 29/11/2019).

Tim ahli itu menempatkan pengeras suara rekaman terumbu yang sehat di petak-petak karang mati bawah air. Hasilnya, dua kali lebih banyak ikan datang dan bertahan di zona kisaran suara itu, jika dibandingkan dengan zona tanpa suara rekaman terumbu karang sehat.

“Of course, attracting fish to a dead reef won't bring it back to life automatically, but recovery is underpinned by fish that clean the reef and create space for corals to regrow,” papar ahli ikan Dr Mark Meekan asal Australian Institute of Marine Science. (University of Exter, 29/11/2019).

Jadi, pengayaan akustik meningkatkan pengembangan komunitas ikan di semua serikat trofik utama, dengan dua kali lipat secara keseluruhan dan kekayaan spesies 50% lebih besar. Jika dikombinasikan dengan restorasi habitat aktif dan langkah-langkah konservasi yang efektif, membangun kembali komunitas ikan dengan cara ini dapat mempercepat pemulihan ekosistem pada berbagai skala spasial dan temporal. (Timothy A.C. Gordon, et al., 2019).

“Acoustic enrichment is a promising technique for management on a local basis. If combined with habitat restoration and other conservation measures, rebuilding fish communities in this manner might accelerate ecosystem recovery. However, we still need to tackle a host of other threats including climate change, overfishing and water pollution in order to protect these fragile ecosystems,” papar Profesor Andy Radford, co-author studi ilmiah itu asal University of Bristol. (University of Exter, 29/11/2019).

Riset kolaborasi itu melibatkan sejumlah ahli yaitu (1) Timothy A.C. Gordon asal Biosciences, University of Exeter, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter EX4 4PS di Inggris dan  Australian Institute of Marine Science, Perth, WA 6009, Australia; (2) Andrew N. Radford asal School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ di Inggris;

(3) Isla K. Davidson asal School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ di Inggris; (4) Kasey Barnes asal Department of Marine Biology and Aquaculture, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811, Australia.

(5) Kieran McCloskey asal Biosciences, University of Exeter, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter EX4 4PS di Inggris; (6) Sophie L. Nedelec asal Biosciences, University of Exeter, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter EX4 4PS di Inggris;

(7) Mark G. Meekan asal Australian Institute of Marine Science, Perth, WA 6009, Australia; (8)  Mark I. McCormick asal 4 Department of Marine Biology and Aquaculture, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811, Australia dan  Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811, Australia; (9) Profesor Stephen D. Simpson asal Biosciences, University of Exeter, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter EX4 4PS di Inggris.

"However, we still need to tackle a host of other threats including climate change, overfishing and water pollution in order to protect these fragile ecosystems. Whilst attracting more fish won't save coral reefs on its own, new techniques like this give us more tools in the fight to save these precious and vulnerable ecosystems. From local management innovations to international political action, we need meaningful progress at all levels to paint a better future for reefs worldwide,” papar Timothy A.C. Gordon. (University of Exter, 29/11/2019)

Oleh: Servas Pandur