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Pertumbuhan Kota Picu Punahnya Keragaman Hayati & Habitat

Tahun 2030, penduduk daerah-daerah perkotaan di seluruh dunia, bakal bertambah sekitar 1,2 miliar jiwa. Risiko langsung ialah sekitar 290.000 km2 habitat alami bakal dikonversi menjadi lahan properti atau perumahan dan gedung-gedung perkotaan (urban land uses) – periode tahun 2000-2030. (Robert I. Mcdonald, et al., 2019)

Sedangkan risiko tidak langsung yang justru lebih besar dari luar kota ialah dampak terhadap keragaman-hayati akibat pola konsumsi pangan / makanan penduduk kota. Begitu hasil riset kolaborasi dari 21 ahli lingkungan dan keragaman-hayati asal Amerika Serikat, Jerman, Kanada, Spanyol, Swedia, dan Portugal, yang dirilis oleh jurnal Nature Sustainability edisi Desember 2019.

Tim ahli itu mengkaji sekitar 922 studi atau riset ilmiah tentang dampak langsung dan tidak langsung pertumbuhan kota terhadap habitat alami dan keragaman-hayati di seluruh dunia.

“In other important for global biodiversity than the direct environmental impact of the urban areas”, ungkap co-author Dr Andressa Vianna Mansur, peneliti post-doctoral asal German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) di Jerman. (German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, 9/12/2019).

words, the food urban dwellers eat turns out to be more Selama ini, banyak penelitian dan kajian ilmiah tentang dampak langsung dari pertumbuhan kota-kota—sekitar 900 studi ilmiah di seluruh dunia. Dari jumlah itu, kira-kira 600 studi ilmiah khusus fokus pada dampak langsung dari pertumbuhan kota terhadap keragaman-hayati dan habitat.

Namun, dampak pertumbuhan kota-kota kurang diriset dan dikaji pada zona-zona perkotaan yang justru data satelit menunjukkan imej paling intens tentang risiko keragaman-hayati dan habitat. Sangat sedikit studi ilmiah akhir-akhir ini meneliti dan mengkaji dampak tidak langsung pertumbuhan kota terhadap habitat alami dan keragaman-hayati—hanya 34% dari total 922 studi ilmiah yang dikaji oleh Robert McDonald dkk (2019).

"As a result, we don't know much about the way ecosystems change in these habitats in response to urbanization. In other words, we are spending about twice as much effort to study direct effects than indirect effects, even though indirect effects seem to be far more important in magnitude", ungkap Robert McDonald. (German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, 9/12/2019).

Proyek riset Robert I. McDonald dkk (2019) didanai oleh Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft (DFG) di Jerman. Riset kolaborasi 21 ahli itu dirilis oleh jurnal Nature Sustainability (Robert I. McDonald, et al., “Research gaps in knowledge of the impact of urban growth on biodiversity”, Nature of Sustainability, December 9, 2019).

Proyek riset itu melibatkan 20 ahli yaitu (1)Robert I. McDonald asal Global Cities Program, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA, Amerika Serikat; (2) Andressa V. Mansur asal German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Jerman; (3) Fernando Ascensão asal CIBIO/InBio, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Department of Conservation Biology, Estación Biológica de Doñana, Seville, Spanyol;

(4) M’lisa Colbert asal The Nature of Cities, New York, NY, Amerika Serikat; (5) Katie Crossman asal Global Cities Program, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA, Amerika Serikat; (6) Thomas Elmqvist asal Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Swedia;

(7) Andrew Gonzalez asal Department of Biology, Quebec Centre for Biodiversity Science, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Kanada; (8) Burak Güneral asal Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, Amerika Serikat; (9) Dagmar Haase asal Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Jerman; dan Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Jerman;

(10)  Maike Hamann asal Institute of the Environment and Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, Amerika Serikat; (11) Oliver Hillel asal Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Quebec, Kanada; (12) Kangning Huang asal Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, Amerika Serikat;

(13) Belinda Kahnt asal General Zoology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Jerman; (14) David Maddox asal The Nature of Cities, New York, NY, Amerika Seikat; (15) Andrea Pacheco asal German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Jerman;

(16)  Henrique M. Pereira asal German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Jerman; dan CIBIO/InBio, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Jerman; (17) Karen C. Seto asal Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, Amerika Serikat;

(18) Rohan Simkin asal Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, Amerika Serikat; (19) Brenna Walsh, Future Earth, Montreal, Quebec, Kanada; (20) Alexandra S. Werner asal German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; (21) Carly Ziter asal Biology Department, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Kanada. 

 

 

 

Oleh: Servas Pandur